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Access Forms Masterclasses

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Access Forms Masterclass #6
A Push-Button Filter for Your Access Forms

Published: 5 October 2018
Author: Martin Green
Screenshots: Access 2016, Windows 10
For Access Versions: 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016

I first came across this idea when learning Access 2 many years ago, so thanks to the author of whatever book I found it in (and apologies for not being able to remember the name of the book or its author!). Then it was called a Rolodex, referring to the well-known card index gadget found on so many desks in those days. Not wanting to be sued by the Rolodex company for taking their excellent productís brand name in vain, I have chosen to call this tool a Push-Button Filter. The original tool was powered by Access macros. In those early Microsoft office days there was not the Visual Basic Editor we have today, and any code writing was in Access Basic. My version uses VBA and benefits from the power and flexibility this offers.

The idea is very simple. The tool takes the form of a console consisting of a collection of 26 Toggle Buttons, one for each letter of the alphabet (Fig. 1), enclosed in an Option Group.

The Push-Button Filter tool.
Fig. 1 The Push-Button Filter tool.

The user clicks a button, and something happens. Exactly what depends upon you. Iím offering a couple of suggestions. One idea is a Filter, so that the formís recordset is filtered to show only those records in which the text of a specific field starts with the chosen letter. Another idea makes use of a sorted recordset, in which the form displays the first record that starts with the chosen letter. There are lots more possibilities for a tool like this but once you understand the general principle of how it works you can probably come up with other ideas yourself. Regardless of how it is to be used, the method of building the Push-Button console is the same.

Step 1: Build the Push-Button Console

Depending upon how it will be used, the console can be placed on the form, or in its header or footer sections. Move your form into Design View and, in an empty space, use the Option Group tool (Fig. 2) to draw a rectangle large enough to enclose the required number of buttons (Fig. 3). Donít worry too much about the size, you can adjust it to fit as you go along.

The Option Group tool.
Fig. 2 The Option Group tool.

Draw a rectangle on the form.
Fig. 3 Draw a rectangle on the form.

The Option Group needs a sensible name so enter one (I called mine grpConsole) in the Name textbox on the Other tab of its Property Sheet (open the Property Sheet with [Alt]+[Enter]).

Next, select the Toggle Button tool on the Design tab of the ribbon (Fig. 4) then click inside the rectangle you just created. As you hover over the Option Group frame its background turns black to indicate that the item you are about to drop onto it will form part of an option group (Fig. 5).

The Toggle Button tool.
Fig. 4 The Toggle Button tool.

NOTE: Like Option Buttons and Check Boxes, Toggle Buttons have two states: selected and not-selected. When used alone on a form these states become True and False respectively, but when these controls are placed inside a Frame as part of an Option Group they each have a numerical value which, when selected, becomes the value of the Option Group. The numerical value is assigned automatically as you add controls to the group, incrementing from 1, or it can be assigned manually using the controlís Option Value property.

Drop a Toggle Button onto the Frame.
Fig. 5 Drop a Toggle Button onto the Frame.

Format the Toggle Button to suit the style of your own form. For this example, I used the following settings (Table 1) on the Toggle Buttonís Property Sheet (if necessary, open the Property Sheet by selecting the Toggle Button and pressing [Alt]+[Enter]).

Table 1: Properties of the first Toggle Button.

Property Tab Value
Width: Format      1 cm
Height: Format 1 cm
Back Color: Format Access Theme 3 (optional)
Caption: Format A
Font Size: Format 18
Font Weight: Format Bold
Option Value Data 1

Having created the first Toggle Button (Fig. 6 left) you now need to add the remaining 25, one for each letter of the alphabet. You could add them one at a time, but I prefer to save time by copying and pasting. Simply click on the first Toggle Button to select it and press [Ctrl]+C then [Ctrl]+V to create an exact copy. Move the copy so that it sits alongside the first, then repeat until you have built the first row of buttons. Controls on a form will snap to the grid as you move or resize them so itís quite easy to align them neatly.

Add the remaining Toggle Buttons to the Option Group.
Fig. 6 Add the remaining Toggle Buttons to the Option Group.

Now you have a row of Toggle Buttons all labelled ďAĒ so you need to change the Caption property of each one as appropriate. The copy/paste process also confers the same Option Value on each button so they currently all have the same value as the first one. Access has spotted this and has displayed a green marker on each to warn you that the value is duplicated (Fig. 6 centre left). Change the Option Value property of each button (B=2, C=3, D=4 and so on) to fix this (Fig. 6 centre right). As you do this the green warning markers disappear.

If, like me, you choose to arrange your buttons in more than one row, you can create the first row then copy it and paste the next row underneath. Change the captions and values as before until you have an entire alphabet of buttons (Fig. 6 right).

TIP: When selecting multiple controls on a form, you can click on the first item then hold down [Ctrl] or [Shift] whilst you click on each of the others. If the controls to be selected are adjacent to each other, you can make a multiple selection by using the mouse to draw a box around the items to be selected.

If you wish you can add a caption to the Option Groupís label. I preferred to delete the label (select the label then press [Delete]). I formatted the outline of the Option Groupís frame to suit the design of my form by changing its Special Effect property to Flat and choosing a suitable colour for its Border Color property. I also adjusted the size of the frame to better suit the arrangement of the buttons (Fig. 7).

The completed Option Group in Design View and Form View.
Fig. 7 The completed Option Group in Design View and Form View.

Once created, the button console can be moved to a suitable location. Start by making a multiple selection of the entire Option Group as described in the TIP above, then point at the outline of the selection so that the Mover cursor appears (Fig. 8) then simply drag the whole thing to its desired location.

Drag the Option group to its desired location.
Fig. 8 Drag the Option group to its desired location.

For accurate placement use the [Arrow] keys to move the selected items up, down, left or right. Hold down the [Control] key whilst doing so for fine-tuning.

TIP: I have found the most useful command when building forms is Undo! It is so easy to accidentally move, change or delete an object. Donít panic! Just press [Ctrl]+Z until you have undone whatever it is that you didnít mean to do.

The Push-Button console is now complete. When in form view you will see that only one button can be selected at a time. If you select another button the previously selected button will be deselected.

The next task is to write the VBA code that will turn it into a useful tool.

Step 2: Write the VBA Code

I am suggesting two different uses for this Push-Button console:

  • Filter by Letter When a letter is chosen the formís recordset is filtered by a particular field so that only those records with entries starting with that letter are shown.
  • GoTo by Letter This requires the recordset to be sorted alphabetically (A-Z) by the field in question. When the user chooses a letter, the form moves to the first record that starts with that letter.

A Filter by Letter Tool

1. Prepare the Form

To best appreciate this tool in action I have created a form that displays its records as Continuous Forms. I designed the form with the fields arranged in a single row so that, in form view the form has the appearance of a datasheet. So, why not use Datasheet View? Datasheet View does exactly what it says and presents the data in the form of a datasheet and does not allow the addition of a header or footer, so there is nowhere to place the Option Group. I can achieve the same effect with a little work on a Continuous Forms form and still have somewhere to locate the console (Fig. 9, Fig. 10).

Note that I have also added a ďShow AllĒ button to allow the user to cancel the filter if they wish.

The Continuous Forms form in design view.
Fig. 9 The Continuous Forms form in design view.

The Continuous Forms form in form view.
Fig 10 The Continuous Forms form in form view.

2. Enter the Code
The macro that applies the filter must run when one of the console buttons is pressed. Pressing a button results in the value of the Option Group changing, adopting the Option Value of the selected button. The code is therefore attached to the AfterUpdate event of the Option Group control.

Select the Option Group by clicking on its frame (not on one of the buttons) and click in the AfterUpdate text box on the Event tab of its Property Sheet. Click the Build button ([Ö]) and choose Code Builder in the Choose Builder dialog then click OK to open to the Visual Basic Editor where an empty AfterUpdate macro has been created. Add the following code (Listing 1) remembering to change the name of the Option Group if you used something different:

Listing 1:

Private Sub grpConsole_AfterUpdate()
On Error Resume Next
Dim strLetter As String
    strLetter = Chr(64 + Me.grpConsole.Value)
    Me.OrderBy = "[Lastname], [Firstname]"
    Me.OrderByOn =
    Me.Filter = "[Lastname] Like " & Chr(34) & strLetter & Chr(42) & Chr(34)
    Me.FilterOn =
End Sub

3. How it Works
I canít think of anything that might go wrong here but to be safe the code starts with a basic error handler.

The code needs to convert the number that is the value of the Option Group into a letter. I am going to store that letter in a string variable called strLetter so the next statement declares the variable.

The code needs to change the numerical value of the Option Group (e.g. A=1, B=2 etc.) into the letter it represents, and makes use of the Chr() function to do this. The ASCII value of the letter ďAĒ is 65. These ASCII values increment by one through the alphabet, so that ďZĒ is character 90.

NOTE: Upper-case and lower-case letters have different ASCII values. Lower-case ďaĒ is character 97, through to ďzĒ being character 122. Since the filter is not case sensitive it doesnít matter which we use. I have chosen upper-case.

I could have applied the actual ASCII values to the buttons, but it is a simple matter to convert them. All that is needed is to add 64 to the value of the Option Group to get the ASCII value of the letter corresponding to the button that was pressed. The resulting number is then put into the Chr() function which is then passed to the strLetter variable (e.g. ďAĒ = Chr(64+1), ďBĒ = Chr(64+2) etc.).

The filter doesnít require the recordset to be sorted but it makes sense to sort the results of the filter, so the next two statements apply a sort order and switch it on.

Finally, two statements construct the filter, apply it and switch it on. To build the filter I have made use of the Chr() function again to represent various characters (for example Chr(34) is the quote mark (") and Chr(42) the asterisk (*))

TIP: The Chr() function is very useful when constructing text strings in VBA, especially when working with SQL where quote marks, asterisks etc. are involved. To find out the ASCII value of any character (i.e. the number you give the Chr() function to generate a character), open the Visual Basic Editorís Immediate Window (keys: [Ctrl]+G) and type, for example, ?Asc(ďAĒ) and press [Enter]. The Asc() function will return the ASCII value of the character you gave it.

4. Suggested Improvements
You could add a couple of simple improvements to this macro. If the user chooses a letter for which there are no records the form will simply display a single empty record. Rather than leave it at that, I prefer to let the user know that this is because no matching records were found. I use an If Statement and a Message Box to achieve this (Listing 2).

Listing 2:

If Me.Recordset.RecordCount = 0 Then
    MsgBox "No records starting with " & strLetter & " were found.", vbInformation
End If

The If Statement checks the RecordCount property of the formís Recordset property which holds the number of records currently being displayed. When executed after the filter has been applied it will give the number of records that remain after the filter was applied. If the result is zero, then a simple message is displayed (Fig. 11).

An optional message shows that nothing was found.
Fig. 11 An optional message shows that nothing was found.

You might notice that, when a button is pressed, the screen flickers as the filter is applied and the picture redrawn. Whilst this is a minor inconvenience user might find it distracting. It is easily cured by hiding screen updates until the process has finished. Do this by turning Echo off then on again. The completed macro including the message and Echo commands is shown here (Listing 3):

Listing 3:

Private Sub grpConsole_AfterUpdate()
On Error Resume Next
Dim strLetter As String
    strLetter = Chr(64 + Me.grpConsole.Value)
    Me.OrderBy = "[Lastname], [Firstname]"
    Me.OrderByOn =
    Me.Filter = "[Lastname] Like " & Chr(34) & strLetter & Chr(42) & Chr(34)
    Me.FilterOn =
If Me.Recordset.RecordCount = 0 Then
        MsgBox "No records starting with " & strLetter & " were found.", vbInformation
End If
End Sub

NOTE: When using DoCmd.Echo False you must remember to switch it on again before the end of the macro. It is also vital that your code is protected by an error handler. A simple error handler like that used here is fine for the simplest of macros where nothing serious could happen. When using a full error handler, you must include DoCmd.Echo True in the Exit Routine to make sure that, in the event of an error, screen updating is restored. Failure to do this could leave your user with a blank screen.

5. Add a Show All Button
Unless you set a default value for the Option Group it will have a value of zero when the form opens and the formís recordset will be unfiltered. If the user wants to remove the filter they can do so by clicking the ďFilteredĒ button next to the navigation buttons at the bottom of the screen, or the Toggle Filter button on the Home tab of the ribbon. However, doing this does not affect the Option Group and the last-chosen button will remain selected. This might give the impression that the recordset was filtered when it wasnít. You could attempt to synchronise the button console with the recordset but, wanting to keep things simple, I have chosen to add a ďShow AllĒ button.

This is simply a command button (I named mine cmdShowAll) with a command to switch off and clear the formís filter applied to its OnClick event (Listing 4).

Listing 4:

Private Sub cmdShowAll_Click()
On Error Resume Next
Me.Filter = ""
    Me.FilterOn =
    Me.grpConsole.Value = 0
End Sub

It also includes a command setting the value of the Option Group to zero so that no buttons appear selected. Unlike the built-in commands, it doesnít toggle the filter on and off, it simply makes sure itís off.

A GoTo by Letter Tool

This tool is intended for use on forms displaying their records in Single Form view. It also requires that the recordset be sorted alphabetically (A-Z) but the code will take care of that. The console can be placed anywhere on the form, or in its header or footer sections. In this example I have placed it in the formís footer (Fig. 12).

The console on a Single Form form.
Fig. 12 The console on a Single Form form.

When the user clicks a button on the console the form will move to the first record in the recordset whose entry in the specified field (in this case Lastname) starts with the chosen letter. The user can then move through the records in the usual way (they will have been sorted alphabetically by the macro) or select another letter.

As with the Filter by Letter tool the code runs on the AfterUpdate event of the Option Group (Listing 5):

Listing 5:

Private Sub grpConsole_AfterUpdate()
On Error Resume Next
Dim strLetter As String
Dim rst As Object
    strLetter = Chr(64 + Me.grpConsole.Value)
    Me.OrderBy = "[Lastname] ASC"
    Me.OrderByOn =
Set rst = Me.RecordsetClone
    rst.FindFirst "[Lastname] Like " & Chr(34) & strLetter & Chr(42) & Chr(34)
If rst.NoMatch Then
        MsgBox "No records starting with " & strLetter & " were found.", vbInformation
        Me.Bookmark = rst.Bookmark
End If
Set rst = Nothing
End Sub

2. How It Works
As in the previous example the macro notes which button has been pressed and in the same way stores it in the strLetter variable. It then sorts the formís recordset by the Lastname field in ascending (A-Z) order.

The code makes use of the formís RecordsetClone property which it stores in an object variable named rst.

NOTE: The Recordset Clone is an exact copy of the formís recordset that can be manipulated in memory without interfering with the recordset that the form is displaying. Having carried out any necessary work on the clone it can be discarded. When assigning a value to an object variable, such as the Recordset Clone, you must use the Set keyword.

The macro uses the FindFirst method to travel through the recordset until it finds a record that satisfies the specified condition, in this case a record in which the Lastname field starts with the chosen letter. The recordset must be in ascending sort order for this to work.

If the end of the recordset is reached without a matching record being found the recordsetís NoMatch property is set to True. An If Statement checks to see whether this is the case and if so displays a message stating that nothing was found. If, however, a suitable record is found the FindFirst method stops on that record and its position in the recordset is bookmarked.

The position of the formís bookmark is then synchronised with that of the Recordset Cloneís bookmark, making the form display the found record. Finally, the rst variable is set to Nothing to clear it from memory.

3. A suggested Improvement
Having found their chosen records, the user might move to other records in the recordset. As they do so the console will continue to display the letter the user last chose, even though they might be viewing a record with a Lastname starting with a different letter.

The solution is to synchronise the console with the record that is currently being displayed. The following code runs on the formís Current event (Listing 6). This event happens when the form opens and each time a different record is displayed.

Listing 6:

Private Sub Form_Current()
On Error Resume Next
If IsNull(Me.Lastname.Value) Then
        Me.grpConsole.Value = 0
        Me.grpConsole.Value = Asc(UCase(Left(Me.Lastname.Value, 1))) - 64
End If
End Sub

The code uses an If Statement to check if the Lastname field contains a value. If not (i.e. its value is Null) the value of the Option Group is set to zero so that no buttons are pressed. If there is a value in the Lastname field the code determines the ASCII value of the first (leftmost) letter then subtracts 64 to arrive at a number it can assign to the Option Group so that the correct button appears selected.

NOTE: when searching a recordset, text is normally not case sensitive, but when determining the ASCII value of a character upper-case and lower-case letters have different values. To prevent confusion, I have used the UCase function to ensure that, whatever case the Lastname data is written in, the ASCII value of the upper-case version of the first letter is calculated.

Download Example Database

You can download a sample Access database containing completed examples of the form shown in this Masterclass. The database contains two copies of the form: one equipped with the Filter by Letter tool and the other with the GoTo by Letter tool.

To download the file right-click the icon or text link below and choose Save target as... and follow the instructions. The database is supplied in a *.zip folder. After downloading you should extract the database file from the zip folder before attempting to use the database. To do this right-click the zip file icon then choose Extract All... and follow the instructions.

Download Masterclass 1 Database [114KB]
Download Masterclass 1 printable PDF. AccessFormsMasterclass6_PushButtonFilter.pdf [354KB]

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